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BEE-L  June 1994

BEE-L June 1994

Subject:

Re: Canadian Border Question (fwd)

From:

"Paul van Westendorp 576-5600 Fax: 576-5652" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Discussion of Bee Biology <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 22 Jun 1994 12:03:00 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (115 lines)

    Lynn Hale,
 
    I suppose, having been in the middle of the debate of Canada/US border
    closure in 1987 onward, first as Alberta's Provincial Apiculturist and
    later as BC's Provincial Apiculturist, I may be in a good position to
    respond to your question.
 
    Some historical background is warranted.  During the 1970's, Canadian
    apicultural specialists started to express concern about the potential
    introduction of "exotic" mites into Canada.  It was recognised that
    annual purchases of 100,000's packages and queens from a comparitively
    small geographical area in California, heightened the industry's
    vulnerability to the introduction and distribution of pests throughout
    Canada's most important beekeeping areas.  Provincial apiculturists
    started to encourage beekeepers to overwinter their colonies.  Research
    projects on wintering techniques and breeding programs to develop winter
    hardy bees were carried out; courses on queen rearing were offered;
    assistance programs (financial and technical) for wintering were made
    available in some provinces.
 
    Also, the threat of these exotic mites caused Canadian apiculturists, in
    consultations with Canadian Honey Council (Canada's national beekeeping
    organisation) and the federal government to review provisions under the
    Animal Disease and Protection Act. (Since then replaced by the Animal
    Health Act).  After lengthy discussions, it was decided in the early
    1980's, to name Varroa jacobsoni under the Act as a reportable pest,
    while the tracheal mite (HBTM) was left out.  This decision was made by
    the industry because Varroa was still seen as some pest in the distant
    future, while HBTM had just been confirmed in the US.  The industry felt
    it could not afford to jeopardize its access to US packages and queens
    at that time.  Yet, provincial beekeepers associations and governments
    whose legislation included HBTM as reportable pests, demanded steps be
    undertaken to prevent HBTM introduction into Canada through a tracheal
    mite certification program.  This program failed for many reasons.
    Without going into detail about the causes of failure, it must be pointed
    out that the program included the provision of closing the border to bee
    shipments in the event of HBTM infestations in California's bee breeding
    area.  Canadian beekeepers relying on annual bee importations were fully
    aware of the potential of border closure.  Before gassing the bees off in
    the fall, beekeepers would call and ask if the border would be closed
    next spring.   I recall very clearly in (early) September 1987, telling
    producers that under conditions at that time, that there was no reason to
    believe that the border would be closed.
 
    Of course, the situation changed overnight when in late September (21?)
    of that same year Varroa was discovered in the US.  (It was a big
    surprise to most, because had we not all expected to see the Africanized
    bees arrive first?).  Since Varroa was under federal legislation, the
    Government in Ottawa was suddenly confronted of having to formulate a
    response strategy that would address beekeeping interests throughout
    Canada.  All provincial beekeepers organisations except Alberta's were in
    support of border closure.  All provincial governments were also in
    support of closure, while the Government of Alberta abstained.  (Please
    note that the border issue caused terrible polarisation within the
    Alberta beekeeping fraternity at that time and each group submitted
    convincing arguments to the Provincial Government).  Extensive
    consultations between industry groups and governments took place
    throughout the winter of 1987 and 1988.
 
    In 1987/88, no chemical control product was registered in Canada (and the
    US) to control Varroa.  In addition to the stated positions of
    associations and provinces to close the border, the federal government
    had little choice but opted for a commonly used method in animal disease
    control, namely by physically isolating the Canadian bee population.
    Neither the federal government nor any other proponent to border closure
    ever argued that this strategy would keep Varroa out of Canada forever.
    Instead, it was hoped that with beekeeper compliance, Varroa could be
    kept out of Canada for a number of years during which time control
    products may become available.
 
    In response to the challenges faced by many beekeepers to convert their
    operations to wintering in 1988 onward, the Province of Alberta
    introduced financial assistance programs to its producers, up to C$10.-
    per colony.  This was followed by a multi-year sugar subsidy program
    where beekeepers could purchase sugar for winter feed at subsidized
    prices.  At the same free engineering asistance was offered for the
    design and construction of indoor wintering facilities.  Colleges,
    universities and federal research facilities continued to offer
    information on improved wintering techniques.
 
    As of today, the vast majority of beekeepers and beekeeping operations in
    Canada have remained free of Varroa.  Although the pest will continue to
    spread in the years to come, Varroa's principal distribution is still
    concentrated in border areas.  After six years of border closure, the
    policy must be recognised as having been successful.
 
    Regardless, the implementation of the border closure policy carried a
    high cost, especially for those producers who were fully dependent on
    annual package and queen importations.  In 1988 and 1989, scores of those
    'package operators' went out of business.  It has often been claimed that
    the border closure was the cause of their demise.  I do not believe that
    this is entirely true.  In many cases, producers were already in serious
    difficulty because of persistent low honey prices (remember those
    horrific years when honey went for C$0.37 - 0.39 a pound?) and hence,
    they did not have the resources needed to convert their operations.  For
    many, border closure may have been the final 'nail in the coffin'.  On
    the positive side, many beekeepers did convert their operations
    successfully and became highly self-sufficient while remaining free of
    Varroa.
 
    It should be remembered that the closure of the Canada/US border was
    enacted because of Varroa, not HBTM.  The justification of keeping the
    policy in place is lessened every year with the further spread of Varroa
    in Canada's beekeeping areas.  The current ban will remain in effect
    until December 31, 1995 and by that time, the Canadian beekeeping
    industry may democratically decide continuation of the policy is no
    longer warranted.
 
 
 
    Paul van Westendorp                         [log in to unmask]
    Provincial Apiculturist                     ph.  (604) 576-5639
    BC Ministry of Agriculture,                 fx.  (604) 576-5652
        Fisheries & Food

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