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BEE-L  April 2014

BEE-L April 2014

Subject:

KTB coffin hives

From:

[log in to unmask]

Reply-To:

Informed Discussion of Beekeeping Issues and Bee Biology <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 8 Apr 2014 17:39:10 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (152 lines)

This is my Nigerian friend, Bisi's, response to the BeeL post I 
forwarded to her:


"The problem is not hive type but beekeeping practice.......

EcoType
An eco type is a population that has adapted to a specific set of
circumstances e.g climate and or forage. African bees retain a huge 
variety
of original genetic resources because they have not been hybridised for
honey production to any thing like the extent of European bees. They are
smaller, sharper and hugely adaptable because they retain a vast range 
of
genetic resources to draw on e.g their swift adaptation to the varroa 
mite
or the 'cape bee' of south africa whose queenless workers
can lay fertilised eggs.

As they are smaller (than European types), they have to be quicker to
respond to external stimuli AND respond in numbers to be effective. 
This is
often interpreted as 'aggressivness'.

The eco type I work with, A.m.adansonii, will abscond to internal (e.g
starvation, pest ) or external stimuli (you pesky beeks) at the drop of 
a
hat and follow the floral flow....

Hive Type
The bees don't care about what type of hive , they have very simple
requirements for a hive (sufficient cubic capacity, ability to
thermoregulate - keep the space dry, maintain brood / honey storage
temprature etc). Which is why you will find wild swarms in pretty much 
any
thing! Car bonnets, cement walls, wooden tree trunks etc. Hive type is a
beekeeper issue and choice. Please don't blame the bees!

A poor workman always blames his tools. You need to get two things right
with TB hives - 20 degree angle on end boards, 33cm wide TBs. Then keep 
the
bars straight to prevent cross bracing of combs across TBs. You can set 
up a
TBH much like a langstroth and have a play with entrances at the end(s) 
-
recommended,  TBH shaped QE board to separate brood from honey stores, 
Super
chambers, yes you can use them on TBHs, dummy boards to expand or reduce
cubic capacity to fit the size of the colony etc etc.)

It is quite possible to produce excellent good clean honey products from
TBHs and traditional bark hives. It is not the hive type that 
determines the
quality of output it is the quality of the beekeeper and beekeeper's
practice, surely!
See http://www.tropicalforest.com/Tropical_Forest/African_Honey.html  
who
produce certified, organic honey from traditional log hives. You have to
work with the bees, use modern evidence-based practices and common sense
(i.e good protection and a gentle co operative approach).

It is not about poor Africans or poor African practice: you find very 
poor
beekeeping practice in the UK and US as well. For example increasing 
varroa
resistance from poor use of varroacides (high exposure, short duration
strips left in the hive for more than 9 weeks) . Or importing queens or
colonies from other climates (did I mention varroa or small hive 
beetle...)
which have brought in practically all disease and pests known to 
European
bees!

Hot air rises, so working on the horizontal is in tropical climates more
efficient than working vertically. Look at the way wild swarms build in
fallen logs or along branches for asian ecotypes.


Tropical Honey
There is mounting evidence that tropical honey naturally has more 
moisture
in it. We need more research to understand why the bees do it that way, 
but
the bee standard seems a lot 'wetter' i.e more than 15 - 17% moisture 
than
standard European honey. As the bees have been producing honey for 
thousands
of years, I guess they know what they are doing and it is humans who 
need to
adjust our expectations to suit the circumstances.

Extraction
In tropical climates, I use the 8 day float method. Tight fitting lid,
gravity and time to separate honey from wax (honey sinks, wax floats) 
with
simple filters. Unlike modern extractors, the method does not rip the 
honey
molecules apart to airate the honey, it takes longer and requires a
different effort, but is not less effective and is cheap and portable.

Honey & Beeswax
KTBs have some advantages for beekeepers and bees as long as your focus 
is
not simply honey production and as much of it as possible!

Beekeepers have to be more gentle when working the hive as unframed 
combs
are liable to break. The bees benefit from this. Beeks have to know and
understand how the bees have arranged each hive, i.e location of the 
brood
combs (front entrance or at the back - as the bees don't read the books 
to
do it the same every time for our convenience, they make dynamic 
decisions
based on their own circumstances.....). Beeswax: if you know how to 
harvest
the correct combs, extract the honey, clean and add value to beeswax, it
extends income production beyond the honey season and provides a basis 
for
value added and medicinal preparations (creams, candles, ointments, 
etc).
Information and knowledge are the key, not hive type.

Unframed combs allows bees to demonstrate a wider range of their natural
behaviours (e.g natural comb building). Natural comb is a far more 
complex
production number - multiple knobbly decisions and twists and turns, so
lovely and clearly just what is needed when and where it is needed. 
Beeks
can then extract natural unframed comb regularly. Comb extraction is a 
pest
and disease prevention practice as you will know if you ever have to 
deal
with wax moth. No chemicals required!

I suggest rather than introducing a new hive type, information to enable
them to work with any hive type would be more valuable. See basic and
advanced manuals at http://beesabroad.org.uk/?page_id=126

Another good tropical beekeeping resource is
http://teca.fao.org/resource/beekeeping-tropics-agromisa

Regards
Bisi New"

Chris

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