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BEE-L  March 2011

BEE-L March 2011

Subject:

Tips and Techniques

From:

[log in to unmask]

Reply-To:

Informed Discussion of Beekeeping Issues and Bee Biology <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 31 Mar 2011 12:18:17 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (122 lines)

I get frequent questions about how to monitor bees when a major industry  
intends to build next to a beeyard, or a new pesticide is going to be   
applied.  An e-mail yesterday, got me to thinking about what a beekeeper or  a 
bee association can do.
 
Studies of bees and toxic chemicals tend to be time-consuming and  pricey.  
However, we often use a CHEAP brood survival assay that I  pioneered in 
Puget Sound in the early 1980s, working with small scale  beekeepers.
 
This test only requires some long dressmaker pins (I usually get mine  at 
Wally World or K-Mart), a scoring sheet, time for an initial setup and  
evaluation, and time for a followup evaluation two weeks  later.   Works best 
with two people - one to mark and read out the  data, the other to record.  

Brood Survival Assay:
 
Pull a frame with lots of eggs or eggs and young larvae.
 
Mark out 6 rows of 24 cells, separated by a row.  Starting at the  top, 
left of the patch of mostly eggs, press in a Dressmaker pin - use LONG  ones.  
Seat the pin so head is just above top of cell, pin sticking  through the 
other side.  That pin marks the upper left  corner.  Count - pin cell, then 
two cells, then 20 cells,  then two cells, and then the final pin.  Now, go 
down frame.   Skip one row of cells, mark the next - pin, 2, 20, 2, pin.  
Randomize the  colors of the pins.  Repeat till you have 6 rows marked.
 
Use various colored pins and  randomize them.  Bees work overtime  PULLING 
them out.  IF you use all the same color pins, and you've only a  few pins 
left in 2 weeks, you can't index to the original patch of cells.   Also, bees 
tear up the cells adjacent to the pins, so the  2 cell  space is a 
sacrifice area, intended to ensure that you've 20 undisturbed  cells.
 
Don't get fancy, others have used strips of plastic, frames of plastic or  
wood to mark the test brood patch - and it almost always compromises the  
test.  If bees have to cross anything to get to the test patch, they may  
either ignore it or remove the brood.  The pins seem to be  less  intrusive - 
still some colonies really worry the pins.  BE SURE to get long  pins - the 
ends should stick through the foundation and out to tops of the   cells on the 
back side - bees may back out  long pins, but they  usually run out of room 
and give up.  Short pins will all be gone in a  couple of days - don't use 
them.  Don't be surprised if you find the  occasional colony that manages to 
pull all of the pins.  
 
Now, I've a scoring sheet that we use.  In practice, having marked 120  
cells for the test, one person READS the life stage contents of each cell  
(eggs, larval stage, pupal stage, empty, nectar, pollen) (5 rows x20  cells = 
100 test cells), and another records the data on the sheet -  or use a small 
recorder hung around your neck.  Wind, batteries dying, make  the recorder a 
bit problemmatic.  This test is easier with a kid, spouse,  neighbor.
 
For the final (sixth) row, take something blunt that fits down into  the 
cell, insert, press downward, twist to macerate the contents.  You  have to be 
aggressive - its amazing  how often an egg lays over and  survives, the 
idea is to destroy any brood of any stage in these  cells.  This  is the 
calibration row - in two weeks, you will  know how well the queen did in relaying 
by how many of these cells she refilled,  and you will know the maximum AGE 
of any bee life stage, since in that  row the oldest brood will have had to 
be from an egg laid AFTER you set up the  trial.
 
Now, place the test frame BACK into center of brood nest, close  hive, and 
LEAVE it alone for 2 weeks.  Approximately 14 days later (don't  go too 
long), go back, and READ the contents of each of the 120 cells,  recording  on 
the data sheet.
 
If you can't make 14 days exactly, better to go a day early than a day  or 
two late - you will undoubtedly have some larvae in the initial test area -  
and these may emerge before you get back, if you wait too long. 
 
Ok, with data in hand from the first and end observations, its now a  
matter of subtracting age at END from life stage at beginning.  Give  yourself 
plus or minus a day to take into account inability to know   exactly how old 
an egg, larvae, or pupae was - as well as any temperature  effects that might 
change development rate.  Look at the calibration  row.  You may decide 
that plus or minus one might be a bit  tight.  Plus or minus 2 days may be a 
bit loose - make  your choice, then be consistent for ALL tested hives.   
Again, that sixth row, it will tell you a lot about AGING and about how  
good the queen is about replacing lost brood.

 
Since everyone on this list has a computer - you can use Excel or  similar 
spreadsheet to do the math for this - or get out your pencil.
 
From this data, you can now estimate survival or mortality.   Really 
healthy colonies can exceed 95%.  Really bad can be as low as  40-50%.   Mortality 
is any life stage in a cell that is younger  than would be reasonable to 
expect.
 
This test takes one box of pins, good eyes, patience. A tray for the  pans 
is useful, better is a cork as a pincushion - less chance of dumping them  
all on the ground or into the hvie.  I also take along a card of thumb  
tacks.  When I replace the test frame, I push  a thumb tack into the  top bar, so 
I can quickly spot the frame when I come back in two weeks.
 
, as most of us get older, reliably seeing eggs in  dark comb gets  harder; 
especially on overcast days.  I've yet to find a light system  that works 
well - best to see who has the best eyes, then have that person  'read' the 
cell contents.  Hint -  kids are often great at this.  
 
Unfortunately as we age, not only does our ability to focus at short  
distances degrade, but as early as 40, vision in low light begins to drop  off.
 
Jerry
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

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