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BEE-L  June 2008, Week 2

BEE-L June 2008, Week 2

Subject:

Re: The latest amazing "discovery" about honeybees.

From:

James Fischer <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Wed, 11 Jun 2008 12:06:11 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (138 lines)

I have been reading a review copy of a book recently 
translated into English named "The Buzz About Bees"
by Jurgen Tautz of the University of Würzburg, Germany.

It comes close to Tom Seeley's "The Wisdom Of The Hive"
in terms of overall quality, but it lacks the meticulous
citations Tom put in his book, so one is left to bang 
away on citation databases in hope of finding primary 
sources.  Annoying.

Anyway, the book addresses the "dialects" issue very
succinctly, so I will quote from the uncorrected proof 
of the book:

=======================================================

"The duration of the waggle phase exhibits only minimal 
differences when the dances of different bee races are 
compared for one and the same flight path. A comparison 
of the dances of bees of the same race for the same 
distance, but over different terrain, reveals the 
landscape-dependent differences to be significantly 
greater than the race-dependent variation."


=======================================================

Below is a longer set of snippets, which lead up to
and explain the quote above.

=======================================================


"Some unambiguous correlations can be noted: with basically 
the same frequency of waggle movement, the longer the waggle 
phase of the dance lasts, the further the bee has to fly to 
the source. However, the duration of the waggle phase 
increases proportionally to the distance only over the 
first few hundred meters; thereafter, it increases more 
gradually, and the distance information to remote goals is 
consequently less precise. 

An additional difficulty arises from the bees’ use of a visual 
odometer to determine the light distance that is communicated 
in the dance. he data delivered by this odometer are relative 
to the structural nature of the surroundings through which the 
bee lies.

When lying through a structured environment, the images of 
objects move across the facets on the surface of the compound 
eye of the bee. his result in an 'optical flow' in the visual 
field of the bee, which helps the bee determine her flight speed. 

Honeybees that fly to the feeding site through a narrow tunnel 
with patterned walls experience an artificially increased 
optical low along a short distance of the path they have to 
fly (Fig. 4.22). These bees have been deceived, and translate 
the increased optical flow into a longer distance, resulting 
in a correspondingly long waggle phase. This simple deception 
in terms of estimated distance opens a window into the 
subjective experience of bees, in which measurements of the 
length of the waggle phase are an indication of how far the 
bees believe they have flown.

The application of the 'deception tunnel' confirmed some old 
ideas, disproved others, clarified disputed points, and 
provided the following new insights:

1) Refuted the opinion that bees use energy consumption 
as a measure of flight distance.

2) Confirmed the use of the visual odometer.

3) Confirmed the old suspicion that distance measurements 
are made on the outward, not on the return Flight.

4) Explained and settled the decade-long controversy about 
the waggle dance, in which it was disputed whether or not 
the recruited bees followed the information coded in the 
waggle dance. The tunnel enabled one to produce bees that 
made errors, visiting feeding sites 6 m from the hive, 
but in their dance signaling a distance 30 times longer. 
Searching recruits were not found lying around the 
indicated food source, but in an area much further away 
where there was nothing of interest. Information from the 
dance is used.

5) Led to the realization (with the help of colored patterns 
in the tunnel) that, of the three color-sensitive visual 
receptor cells in the complex eye of the bee—which 
individually react best to either ultraviolet, blue, or 
green—only the green receptor is used in measuring distance.

The simple manipulation of the bee dance by means of tunnel 
flights demonstrated that the distances that the visual odometer 
was indicating to the bees were influenced by the structure of the 
landscape along the light path. In a test of this idea, a light path 
that passed through a landscape of even appearance was found to 
result in a dance with a short waggle phase, whereas a light path 
of the same length through a complex, structured landscape led 
to a long waggle phase. Should bees fly to feeding sites that are 
the same distance from the hive but lie in different directions, 
the waggle phases of their dances, and so the indication of the 
distance, can differ by a factor of two. A waggle phase of 500 ms 
(millisecond) could, in the case of a light to the south, mean a 
distance of 250 m, and for a light to the west from the same hive, 
500 m (Fig. 4.23).

From this, we can draw two conclusions:

1) The odometer of bees does not deliver absolute distance
information, and is useful only when the followers leave the 
hive in exactly the same direction (and altitude) as the dancer.

2) There needs to be a reevaluation of the idea that in the 
translation of light paths of the same length, bees of different 
races differ in the duration of the waggle phase, because their 
dance languages have different 'dialects'.

The duration of the waggle phase exhibits only minimal 
diferences when the dances of different bee races are compared for 
one and the same flight path. A comparison of the dances of bees 
of the same race for the same distance, but over different terrain, 
reveals the landscape-dependent differences to be significantly 
greater than the race-dependent variation. In assessing the 
coding of the light path length in the bee dance of different 
races in different areas, one is therefore comparing the visual 
properties of the landscape, rather than the properties of 
bee races."


=======================================================

****************************************************
* General Information About BEE-L is available at: *
* http://www.honeybeeworld.com/bee-l/default.htm   *
****************************************************

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