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BEE-L  March 2005, Week 3

BEE-L March 2005, Week 3

Subject:

study on gm rape's effect on bee population

From:

Leigh Hauter <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Informed Discussion of Beekeeping Issues and Bee Biology <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 21 Mar 2005 23:14:10 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (145 lines)

Transgenic crops take another knock

Nature.com
Published online: 21 March 2005
Jim Giles

Shift in weed species hits bees and butterflies.

Commercial use of some genetically modified crops could alter the balance of
weed species that thrive on British farmland. Such a shift could harm bees
and butterflies, warn researchers.

Butterfly numbers were cut by up to two-thirds and bee populations by half
in fields of transgenic winter oilseed rape (canola), according to the final
results of a three-year study commissioned by the UK government.

Researchers behind the 6-million (US$11-million) study say that the
project's weed-control system is to blame. The crops are engineered to
resist a particular herbicide, which hits broad-leafed weeds harder than
grassy varieties. Bees and butterflies suffer because they prefer the former
type of weed.

The scientists add that this would have a knock-on effect on animals higher
up the food chain. "If this crop were commercialized we'd be concerned about
the implications for birds such as sparrows and bullfinches," says David
Gibbons, a conservationist from the Royal Society for the Protection of
Birds and a member of the committee that oversaw the experiment.

Crop fans

Supporters of transgenic crops stress that most insect species were not
affected by the rape's herbicide and say the overall impact on biodiversity
is minimal. "As with all weed-management systems, some weed and insect
species will be positively affected while others may be negatively affected,
but the vast majority are unaffected," says Tony Combes, deputy chairman of
the Agricultural Biotechnology Council, a London-based lobbying group.

Bayer CropScience, headquartered in Monheim, Germany, already markets the
winter oilseed rape used in the trial in the United States and Canada.
Although the crop is grown widely in the two countries, Bayer says it has no
intention of applying for a licence to sell it in Europe.

But Bayer officials point out that the biggest difference in butterfly and
bee numbers is seen in July, when the crop is just about to be harvested and
there is little green material. "There's nothing in the field at that point
for bees and butterflies," says spokesman Julian Little. "You wouldn't get
very many there anyway."

The results will, however, be felt as a further blow to advocates of
transgenic crops. In 2003, two of the three other transgenic varieties
covered by the study, spring oilseed rape and beet, were shown to harm
biodiversity by reducing overall levels of weeds.

Impact factor

Release of the results marks the end of what has been the largest ever study
into the ecological impact of transgenic crops. More than 150 people worked
on the experiment, which involved counting a million weeds and 2 million
insects at sites across Britain. The report is published in the Proceedings
of the Royal Society.

Although none of the crops tested is likely to be licensed in Europe,
researchers behind the study say that the data will inform agricultural
policy for years to come. They point out that the ecological impacts of
previous changes in farming practice, such as increasing herbicide use, were
not properly investigated at the start.

"Now we have a rational and scientific basis for managing change," says
Chris Pollock, director of research at the Institute for Grassland and
Environmental Research in Aberystwyth, UK, and chairman of the study
committee. "We've demonstrated in enormous detail just how tight the
association is between agriculture and the environment."

***************************************************************

Biggest Study of GMO Finds Impact on Birds, Bees

Mon March 21, 2005 12:20 PM GMT-05:00
By David Cullen

LONDON (Reuters) - The world's biggest study to date on the impact of
genetically modified (GMO) crops on wildlife found birds and bees are more
likely to thrive in fields of natural rapeseed than GMO seed, scientists
said.

But scientists behind the British study were keen to stress the differences
between the two arose not because the crop was genetically engineered but
because of the way pesticides were applied.

"The study demonstrates the important of the effects of herbicide management
on wildlife in fields and adjacent areas," researcher David Bohan said.

Green groups, however, were aghast.

"These results are yet another major blow to the biotech industry. Growing
GM winter oilseed rape would have a negative impact on farmland wildlife,"
Friends of the Earth campaigner Clare Oxborrow said.

The trial was the last in a four-part 5.5 million-pound ($9.5 million) test
of controversial technology -- the largest experiment of its kind in the
world.

Scientists said that when compared with conventional winter-sown rapeseed,
GMO herbicide-resistant plants kept the same number of weeds overall, having
more grass weeds but fewer broad-leaved weeds.

Flowers of broad-leaved weeds provide food for insects, while their seeds
are an important food source for other wildlife.

Researchers said that while fields planted with the biotech version were
found to have fewer butterflies and bees, differences arose not because the
crop was genetically-changed but because of the way they were sprayed.

In October 2003, the same government trials found that GMO sugar beet
spraying was significantly more damaging to the environment than the
management of conventional varieties.

They also concluded that gene-spliced spring-sown rapeseed may also have a
negative impact on wildlife, while GMO feed maize did not.

"GMO CROPS ARE BETTER"

The biotech lobby insist the crops are safe.

"GM crops offer a better, more flexible weed management option for farmers
and, as the results today indicate, the difference between the impact of
growing GM and non-GM crops on biodiversity is minimal," Tony Combes, deputy
chairman of the Agricultural Biotechnology Council, which represents biotech
firms like Monsanto and Syngenta .

Despite optimism from proponents of the technology, GMO crops seem a long
way off in Britain.

Last year, the only firm to win approval to grow a GMO crop in Britain --
Germany's Bayer CropScience -- abandoned field testing of GMO crops in
Britain. It also withdrew any outstanding applications awaiting government
approval to sell biotech seeds.

As a result, no new GMO seeds are awaiting approval in Britain, whereas in
the mid-1990s more than 50 different engineered seeds were.

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
-- Visit www.honeybeeworld.com/BEE-L for rules, FAQ and  other info ---
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

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