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BEE-L  July 2002, Week 3

BEE-L July 2002, Week 3

Subject:

FGMO Summary

From:

Tom Barrett <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Informed Discussion of Beekeeping Issues and Bee Biology <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 16 Jul 2002 17:06:27 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (294 lines)

Hello All

I show below a summary of the latest methods of using FGMO for varroa and
Tracheal Mite control. I trust that it is of interest.

Sincerely
Tom Barrett
Dublin
Ireland
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Summary of FGMO

This summary is written as a service to beekeepers and is derived from
information, supplied by  Dr
Pedro Rodriguez who has spent many years perfecting the FGMO treatment
herein described. The
efforts of Dr Rodriguez are now being supplemented by an increasing number
of beekeepers using
FGMO, as the world slowly but inexorably turns against the use of synthetic
chemicals. These
beekeepers are feeding their results back to Dr Rodriguez using the FGMO
Beekeeping Discussion
List. Dr Rodgiguez can be contacted at  [log in to unmask]

NB: Do not be tempted to alter the method of treatment stated here. In
particular, use the cords, not
what might appear to be a cheaper and easier commodity to obtain like paper
napkins. The cords to the
specification shown are the best method of delivering fatal doses of FGMO to
the mites.

On-going research and development is being carried out by Dr Rodriguez team
in Spain and further
improvements can be confidently expected. Meantime as already stated,
beekeepers throughout the
world are using this system with good results.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the acaricide effect
of food grade mineral oil,
0.86 density, in the form of emulsion and 15 microns vapour. The research
was performed in an apiary
of the beekeeping school of the municipal government of Azuqueca de Henares,
(Guadalajara, Spain)
from 13 March to 16 July 2001. The test was performed with 10 colonies hived
in Langstroth type
hives equipped with 4mm hardware cloth bottom screens. Test results
demonstrate that food grade
mineral oil is an efficient, economic and non-contaminating acaricide,
especially when integrated with
other control methods. High resolution liquid chromatography laboratory
analysis (HCPL) showed that
food grade mineral oil does not alter the quality of the honey. DNA tests of
mites collected during the
study identified Varroa destructor as the primary parasitic mite in the
apiary. Similarly, DNA tests of
the honey bees determined that three of the colonies belonged to African
lineage while the rest
belonged to Western European lineage

Full details of this study and the results can be obtained by visiting
www.beesource.com

Before we look at the present FGMO treatment method, it may be useful to
look back a little in history
to see the development of this treatment.

History of FGMO.

Dr Pedro Rodriguez became convinced of the possible efficacy of FGMO
treatment around 5 years
ago.  He started off by drizzling FGMO on the top bars of the brood chamber,
the object being to
asphyxiate the mites and not harm the bees. In this he was only moderately
successful, because
although he had correctly identified the method of killing the mites, the
delivery method of the FGMO
was the 'Achilles Heel' of the treatment. Too deep an oil pool and the bees
died, too shallow an oil pool
and the mites lived. In other words the delivery system had too many
variables in it to permit
continuous repetition of the correct depth of liquid.

And if we think about it, the Delivery System is crucial to all treatments
for varroa. It normally requires
considerable laboratory conditions experimentation, and many many field
tests before the delivery
system  is perfected and FGMO proved to be similar. Thus it is often much
easier to develop the
acaricide than it is to develop the delivery system for it.


What is FGMO?

Food grade mineral oil, also called Liquid Paraffin has a density of  0.86,
is a petroleum derivative that
is odourless, colourless, and does not contaminate, and is especially
utilised for operations requiring a
mineral oil exempt from toxicity. It is widely used by industrial nations in
the food industry and
medicine, as a vehicle and as a lubricant. Utilisation of food grade mineral
oil as an acaricide is
considered highly beneficial. Because of its efficacy, and lack of effect on
the honey, it can be utilised
at times when there are large numbers of mites and when synthetic acaricides
can not be used. This
point is covered in detail later.


FGMO treatment today.

The fundamental concept of the original FGMO treatment was proved to be
sound. However what was
required was a system of delivery with few or no variables and this is where
the Fogger and the 'cords'
came into play.

The effect of the Fogger and the cords can best be described as follows:

The body of the Varroa mite is flat offering a large surface/volume
relationship that makes it vulnerable to
treatment with oils (factor also utilised by Italian investigators (Bee-L
archives; Rodriguez, 2001).
Varroa mites as well as the honey bees breathe through spiracles through
which gaseous exchange occurs by means of adjustments of their respiratory
system (Pugh et al, 1992). Mineral oil emitted by the Fogger and tracked
around the hive by the bees from the 'cords', blocks the spiracles of the
mites causing their death by asphyxiation.

Whilst honey bees also breathe the oil, the size of their spiracles is much
larger than those of the mites, thus it is possible to utilise mineral oil
as an acaricide without harming the honey bees. Also the body of the mites
is covered by pores which the mites utilise to take in moisture for their
hydration. These pores are also blocked by mineral oil thus interfering with
another biologic process of the mites.

Varroa mites cling to the body of the bees while being carried about. During
the application of mineral oil, in vapour or emulsion form, a fine film of
oil is deposited on the bodies of the bees which interferes with the ability
of the mites to cling to the bees (Lujan, 2000; Kamran, 2001), causing them
to fall off.

The sanitary behaviour of the honey bees causes them to remove the emulsion
coated cords promptly and in the
process, their legs become coated with mineral oil that is later transferred
to their bodies when they comb
themselves.

Thus the Fogger - a Burgess Insect propane Fogger - gives a short burst of
intensive treatment, every 15 days or so, whilst the 'cords' act on a slower
but continuous basis conveying the treatment throughout the hive slowly but
surely.

It is suggested that fogging be carried out at the time when foragers are
out because the bulk of the Varroa will be on the nurse bees, hence the
nurse bees would be more exposed to the oil than when all the bees are in.

Utilisation of screened bottom boards (OMFs).

Screened bottom boards prevent mites that have fallen off, from re-attaching
themselves to the bees due to the effect of the mineral oil. These boards
are modified with a tray beneath the screen in which FGMO-coated papers are
placed for collection and counting fallen mites. This is another weapon
which should be used. By having the facility to insert the sheet of paper,
valuable data on mite numbers can be obtained on an ongoing basis. But do
have the OMF without a paper insert at all other times to prevent
re-attachment of fallen mites, mites which have not been killed by the FGMO
but which have merely lost their hold on the bees.

Re-infestation.

During the initial varroa infestation, re-infestation can occur from:
           a. from feral colonies
           b. from weak and dieing colonies being robbed out.

It is thus important to maintain continuous monitoring of the hives to
ensure that the mite is not getting the upper hand. It may also be advisable
at this time, to employ an additional treatment such as Drone Brood
Trapping. If you visit  http://www.xs4all.nl/~jtemp/dronemethod.html you can
download an excellent account of how Dutch researchers use Drone Brood
Trapping very effectively. There are of course much simpler and effective
methods of implementing Drone Brood Trapping.

Benefits of using FGMO during the honey season.
Laboratory test results for residues in honey (just performed) reveal zero
residues.

It will thus be readily appreciated that FGMO can be applied continuously
during the honey season. It is this continuous and relentless pressure on
the mites without any let up during the honey season which makes FGMO so
effective. And it is during the honey season which normally coincides with
the biggest brood build up in the hives which causes the greatest number of
varroa to be produced. No chemical such as fluvalinate, flumethrin,
coumaphos, formic acid, oxalic acid or lactic acid can be applied to the
hives during the honey season, giving the mites a valuable respite from
treatment. And it is also during these times that reinfestation from feral
colonies can further reinforce the mite population with no possible response
from the beekeeper until the honey is removed. Indeed, since Bayvarol users
rarely monitor, relying on the speed at which  Bayvarol knocks down the
mites, the beekeeper will not normally be aware of such reinfestation until
the decks are literally awash with varroa, when it is probably too late to
do anything about it. The problem is damaged bees going into winter. If
there is no treatment at all from May to July it can be assumed that Varroa
numbers will escalate into the thousands by July. This will cause extreme
damage to any bee in the hive. Adding Bayvarol will drop a very high
percentage of mites off the bees, but will do nothing to help the damaged
and weakened bees going into winter. These damaged bees are the main cause
of  winter losses from varroa, and the bees that survive are so badly
damaged that they are unable to bear the demands of brood feeding in the
Spring causing Spring losses..

The alternative is to use a non invasive treatment which can be used all
summer keeping numbers of Varroa down, leading to less bee damage going into
winter. In other words use a lower level but continuous treatment.


Effect of FGMO on Tracheal Mites (Acarine).

FGMO in the fog form is very effective for treatment of Tracheal mites
(acarapis woodi). The mechanism is very simple because the bees breathe the
oil and take it right to where the mites are lodged doing the damage, the
trachea. The mites die on contact with the oil and keep new generations from
migrating to their next host. There are no deleterious effects noticed on
the bees when T mites die right in the airways of the bees.

Preparation of the emulsion and the 'cords'

The ingredients for the emulsion are as follows:

500 mls food grade mineral oil
225 grams bees wax
300 grams honey
sixty 500 mm long by 8mm diameter cotton cords. (Some beekeepers have used
the strands of cotton used in
making mops.)

The procedure for making the emulsion is: heat the food grade mineral oil in
a metal container, melt  bees wax and add to the heated mineral oil. Remove
the container from the heat source and add the honey and cords. Stir with a
wooden spoon to allow the cords to soak well. Allow the emulsion to cool.

Treatment with the emulsion..

For each brood chamber, insert two pieces of the emulsion soaked cords, each
a half a  meter long (20 inches
approx.), on top of the brood frames under the Queen Excluder (if one is
used). Also place two cords on each honey super if the colony is strong. The
reason for placing cords on the honey supers is that the mites do fall off
and climb back on the foraging bees and they are then liable to be carried
up into the supers..The cords are replaced when they are removed by the
bees. Thus the cords are a means of continuously dispersing the FGMO
throughout the hive.

Treatment with the Fogger.

It is essential that only FGMO is put into the Fogger. Do not under any
circumstances put the emulsion into the Fogger. If you do you will do
serious damage to the Fogger. The emulsion is used ONLY for the cords.

A stream of vapour (about four seconds per hive) is blown through the hive
entrance every 15 days. The vapour can be blown through the OMF (open mesh
Floor) if desired. Thus the vapour acts as a high pressure treatment forcing
FGMO on to the bees. Mite falls can be expected for several days after using
the Fogger. The Fogger causes no discernible distress to the bees.( See the
notes on the use of the Fogger under Safety Considerations.)

Chemical analysis of the honey.

During the initial experiments carried out Dr. Pedro Rodriguez, samples were
collected at the end of the experiment and sent for analysis. Tests revealed
that the use of food grade mineral oil does not alter the quality of honey.


Safety Considerations.

FGMO in its natural liquid form is obviously non toxic. But when it is
converted into a fog at 15 microns, it is only prudent not to inhale it, any
more than you would inhale exhaust fumes from the back of a lorry. It would
thus be advisable to wear a respirator just as you would do if you were
spray painting. I use a respirator which filters down to .5 micron (which
cost me 60 Euros - about the same in US$), so that I do not envisage any
problem from this viewpoint. I also wear goggles - perhaps super careful -
but that is the way I think! Any other beekeeper in the apiary will also
need to observe the Safety Considerations.

Care must be used when operating the Fogger. Having lit the Fogger, it
should burn for two minutes before any attempt is made to use it. This will
get the coil up to the necessary operating temperature. For best results and
to prevent flaming, use it horizontally or pointing slightly upwards (e.g.
if you wish to fog through an OMF.) Never use the Fogger pointing down to
the ground as this can cause too much FGMO to be released. Like all such
pieces of equipment adhere to the instructions which come with the product
and you should not have any difficulties.

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