The Frogs & Evening Primrose
Nathan Lane (Dionysos),
Brian Stokes-Mitchell (Xanthias, Pluto),
Davis Gaines (Shakespeare)
Neil Patrick Harris (Charles Snell),
Theresa McCarthy (Ella Harkins)
The American Theatre Orchestra/Paul Gemignani
Nonesuch 79638-2 Total time: 46:41
Summary for the Busy Executive: Bringing Sondheim to light.
Stephen Sondheim almost single-handedly allows musically and dramatically
savvy listeners to still take the Broadway musical seriously. Against
the odds, he's actually enjoyed a couple of hits and even standard songs.
But a good many, if not most, of his shows flop, for reasons I can't
comprehend, when I consider quality alone. On the other hand, I never
was a fan of the score to the early A Funny Thing Happened on the Way
to the Forum (though I loved the book and the performances), caring only
for the one song that has its own life, "Comedy Tonight." The rest of
the numbers seem pretty bland to me, though no worse than a dozen other
hit shows of the period (since about 1959, it's been rather lean times
for the musical).
The "modern" American musical has always yo-yoed between two strains.
It began as operetta, with people like Victor Herbert and John Philip
Sousa. With this, however, we also find musicals based on popular,
mainly jazz-derived songs, with such composers as Cohan, Kern, and Berlin.
From the Teens through about 1950, the latter type has exercised the
greater influence. But even as late as the Thirties, one still gets the
former, with the same composer sometimes providing both. For example,
we have - besides Romberg and Friml - Gershwin's Pardon My English,
Kern's I Dream Too Much (for Hollywood), and the fascinating hybrids
Show Boat and Porgy and Bess. The last, though not a musical, ran on
Broadway, and many of its songs wouldn't have sounded out of place in
a musical. As the classic American song - the kind based on the black
music we lump under "jazz" - declined and began to be pushed back for the
syrupy pop of the Fifties, classic r & b, and rock from schlock to heavy
metal, the American musical has suffered. I can't think of any songwriter
after the golden generation, other than Burt Bacharach (Promises,
Promises), with the same ability to work both Broadway and mainstream
pop. Andrew Lloyd Webber and Michel Schoenberg, of course, have both
achieved phenomenal commercial, if not artistic success. However, not
even their staunchest supporters claim the same penetration for their
songs as for, say, "Someone to Watch Over Me," and I strongly suspect
that their work will have the same staying power as "Maytime," which
they rather resemble in their sentimentality.
Perhaps Sondheim will suffer the same fate, although I hope not. A
genuinely musical sophistication and poetic sensibility separate Sondheim
from the pack. He writes his own lyrics as well as the tunes. He's a
virtuoso "puzzle" lyricist, perhaps our greatest. He seems actually to
enjoy putting up high fences in his path, for the sheer pleasure of
leaping over them. The lyrics of "Into the Woods" are so complicated -
a Rubik's Cube of verses - I have no idea how actors learn them. Cole
Porter, in comparison, seems an amiable duffer. But Sondheim's technical
prowess impresses less than his ability to make even simple schemes and
diction dance and shine and to deal with an emotional range far more
complicated than the current resources of most pop. For one thing,
there's not only irony (something we haven't really gotten since Lorenz
Hart and Cole Porter died), but a masterful avoidance of irony, in the
service of drama and characterization. The opening to "I Remember" from
Evening Primprose, for example, runs:
I remember sky,
It was blue as ink.
Or at least I think
I remember sky.
I remember snow,
Soft as feathers,
Sharp as thumbtacks,
Coming down like lint,
And it made you squint
When the wind would blow.
The similes are strange. One doesn't often run into a sky blue as ink
or snow sharp as thumbtacks. The images could very well be dry-goods
inventory. Why the oddity? The song comes from a young woman who hasn't
been outside since she was six. She has spent all her life since in a
department store. So the oddity and uncertainty ("or at least I think
I remember sky"), illustrate something appropriate about the character
and her circumstance.
Second, Sondheim's lyrics quiver with ambiguity. In Sweeney Todd,
the song "Johanna" functions as a love aria sung by the young man,
the would-be savior of the heroine. But it's a pretty dark song. The
words reveal an obsessive, vampirish stalker. The rest of the play is
so sinister, this comes across as the best hope. Several Republican
administrations have proclaimed the death of irony, and they may well
be right, even as they serve up frightening examples of it. A brilliant
woman, on being asked why she disliked classic American songs, remarked,
"I don't like songs about women who are always getting out of taxicabs."
As a culture, we currently seem to find platitudes comforting and resent
complication. We think of complexity as unnecessary and are ever looking
for Gordian knots to cut, even though we may slice through something
vital. The heart tends to win over the intellect. In essence, we've
lost intellectual patience. Unfortunately, we often gain simple certainty
at the expense of a true picture - calling, in effect, a stick figure
the Mona Lisa. In such an environment, Sondheim doesn't stand much of
As I said, the Funny Thing score allowed me to ignore Sondheim for a
good long while. I missed Company, Follies, and A Little Night Music
at the time they came out. Sure, they got awards, but critics were also
raving over junk. Judy Collins's rendition of "Send in the Clowns"
dripped in Lloyd Webber treacle. So I clocked back in with Sondheim
in 1976's Pacific Overtures, more out of curiosity than anything else.
It blew me away. I've been a Sondheim fanatic ever since.
Sondheim wrote The Frogs in the early Seventies with Forum collaborator
Bert Shevelove for a production at Yale, based on the Aristophanes play.
Thirty years later, in 2004, it finally reached Broadway in an expanded
version by Sondheim (new songs, revised old ones) and Nathan Lane (new
book). The CD presents the shorter, original score - a cast album from
2000. Mainly Aristophanes's basic idea - the "battle" between the classic
poet and the modern one - survives. Aristophanes pitted Aeschylus against
Euripides. Shevelove set Shakespeare against Shaw. Actually, Shaw did
this himself in his late puppet play Shakes vs. Shav (modestly, Shaw
makes this a sort-of draw, with the edge tipping slightly to Guess Who).
Besides the unusual subject (who else would think Aristophanes suitable
for a musical?), notice that Sondheim writes far more music than, strictly
speaking, he needs to and that the score contains very few songs: really,
only one, a setting of Shakespeare's "Fear no more" from Cymbeline.
Sondheim tends to provide musical scenes, some of them of great musical
sophistication - the "Parados" (with the celebrated chorus of the frogs)
and the very beautiful "Hymnos," for example. In both of these numbers,
Sondheim lays out three or four independent planes of musical activity,
presenting them first sequentially and then simultaneously. The "Parados"
consists of, for example, the "brek-kek-kek-kek" strain, a verse, a "big
tune," and (just for fun) the "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" round as well
as Gershwin's "Who Cares?" The harmonies belong more to modern concert
music than to pop. "Hymnos" takes a tripartite song structure (one part
leans heavily on the augmented fourth) and then combines each part -
head of one to tail of another, tail of one to torso of another, all
full-blown together, and so on. Again, the harmonies owe very little
to jazz or to pop.
Evening Primrose Sondheim wrote for television, with Follies collaborator
James Goldman. The only other musical I know written for TV is Rodgers
and Hammerstein's Cinderella. TV apparently aspired to tonier levels
then (Fear Factor! The Musical!). The plot could have come from an
old Twilight Zone episode. Charles, a poet, decides to hide out in
a department store to avoid things like rent and bills. Apparently,
other people have had the same idea. They come out after closing hours,
"dummying up" when the security guard passes by on his rounds. They
also tell him that he can never leave, since that risks jeopardizing the
setup for them all. Transgressors are turned into mannequins, with the
help of dark forces in New York's mortuaries. Charles meets Ella, a
young woman who got lost "in ladies' hats" at the age of six and who
labors as a maid of all work for the rest. They fall in love. Ella
wants to leave, and Charles agrees to leave with her. They get caught,
and the next day, customers see a new mannequin display of a bride and
Against the odds, I actually saw the 1962 production. I wish I could
say I recognized its worth immediately, but it left my conscious memory
quicker than the head on a glass of beer. This CD brought it back. The
show has only four musical numbers, but what great numbers: a typical
Sondheim monologue for Charles, which hammers through a lot of plot
points; Ella's ballad "I Remember Sky"; a sort-of love duet between
Charles and Ella, an interior dialogue under the cover of a bridge
game in which Charles is the fourth and Ella serves tea and sandwiches;
and a final duet, as Charles agrees to flee with Ella. There's not
a "standard" song in the bunch, not even the ballad, and every number
serves the drama. One can see why no professional company has staged
it - its brevity works against this - but schools and enterprising
amateurs would do well to take it up.
This is one fine album. Tommy Krasker may be the finest producer of
show albums now working. None of his discs has disappointed me, and I
greet each new one like a kid at Christmas. Nathan Lane as Dionysus is
astonishingly brilliant. He acts so well with his voice - his comedy
readings stray so far from the expected - you can almost see his pained
smile as you laugh your head off. Indeed, he reminds me of what I've
read of the great English clown, Joseph Grimaldi ("Joey Grim-all-day").
Neil Patrick Harris as Charles brings depth to his character, though
more through his spoken bits than through his singing. Lane, of course,
can act talking and singing. Still Harris gives you more than you expect
from the "boy" part. The production - from the orchestrations, to the
players and singers, and to the sound engineering - everything says